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Typhoid: Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, and Prevention.

Typhoid fever
Typhoid fever

Typhoid, also known as enteric fever, is a bacterial infection caused by Salmonella serotype typhoid. This disease has been a global health concern for centuries, especially in regions with poor sanitation and limited access to clean water. In this article, we will explore the causes, symptoms, treatment, and prevention of typhoid.

Causes of Typhoid:

Causes are reasons why things happen. In the case of typhoid, the cause is usually a type of bacteria called Salmonella Typhi. People get typhoid when they eat or drink something that’s contaminated with this bacteria. Poor sanitation, like dirty water or food, can make it easier for the bacteria to spread. Being in close contact with someone who has enteric fever can also cause it to spread to others. Typhoid is primarily transmitted through the ingestion of food or water contaminated with the feces of an infected person. The bacteria responsible for typhoid thrive in unsanitary conditions, making it more prevalent in areas with inadequate sanitation and hygiene practices. It can also spread through close contact with an infected person.


Symptoms of enteric fever can be quite uncomfortable. A high fever that can reach 104°F (40°C) is common. People with typhoid might get headaches and feel tired and weak. They often have tummy troubles, like pain and either diarrhea or constipation. Sometimes, a rash of small, red spots can appear on their chest and belly. In more severe cases, the spleen and liver can become enlarged. If someone has these symptoms, they should see a doctor as soon as possible for the right treatment.

The symptoms of typhoid can range from mild to severe and typically appear 6 to 30 days after showing. Common signs and symptoms include:


Sustained high fever is a hallmark symptom of typhoid, which can spike as high as 104°F (40°C). Fever is a high body temperature. It’s a common symptom of enteric fever. During typhoid, the fever can be very high. A sustained fever is one of the main signs. A high fever can make you feel weak and tired. Fever is the body’s way of fighting infection. If you have a high fever, you should see a doctor. Fever is often treated with antibiotics. Intense headaches are common in typhoid patients.

Abdominal Pain of typhoid:

Pain and discomfort in the abdomen, often located on the lower right side. Abdominal pain is when your stomach hurts. It can feel like a cramp or a dull ache. It might be in one spot or spread across your whole belly. Occasionally, it’s triggered by something you ate, while conversely, it can be an indicator of an underlying illness. In instances where your abdominal pain persists or intensifies over an extended period, seeking medical advice is a wise course of action. Consequently, a doctor can discern the root cause and implement measures to alleviate your discomfort effectively.

Weakness and Fatigue:

Weakness and Fatigue

Patients often feel weak and fatigued. Feeling tired and weak is common. It’s a symptom of many illnesses. When you have weakness and fatigue, you don’t have much energy and may want to rest a lot. It’s important to get plenty of rest and stay hydrated when you’re feeling this way. Sometimes, it’s your body’s way of telling you to slow down and take care of yourself.

Loss of Appetite: A decreased desire to eat is a typical symptom.

Diarrhea or Constipation: Typhoid can cause gastrointestinal issues, including either diarrhea or constipation.

Rose Spots: A rash of small, red spots may appear on the chest and abdomen.

Enlarged Spleen and Liver: In severe cases, the spleen and liver may become enlarged.

Treatment of Typhoid:

Treatment for typhoid is important when someone gets sick. It usually involves antibiotics that help kill the typhoid bacteria. Common antibiotics used for typhoid are ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone. Besides medicine, staying well-hydrated is crucial. Drink clean water and use oral rehydration solutions if needed. When you have a fever, it’s best not to eat solid foods until you feel better. A doctor should give the green light to go back to your regular diet. Remember, if you think you have typhoid or have been around someone with it, it’s essential to see a healthcare provider for proper treatment. Enteric fever can be serious, but with the right care, most people recover completely.

If you suspect you have enteric fever or have been in contact with someone who has it, it’s crucial to seek medical attention. enteric fever. is typically diagnosed through blood, urine, or stool tests. Treatment involves antibiotics to kill the bacteria. Commonly prescribed antibiotics include ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone.

In addition to antibiotics, it is essential to stay well-hydrated by drinking clean water and consuming oral rehydration solutions. Typhoid patients should avoid solid foods until their fever subsides and a healthcare provider approves a return to a regular diet.

Prevention of typhoid:

Preventing typhoid is primarily a matter of hygiene and vaccination:

Preventing typhoid is important. It’s all about being clean and safe. Wash your hands often, especially before eating and after using the bathroom. Prioritize the use of clean water for drinking and cooking to safeguard your health. Furthermore, exercise caution when it comes to street food consumption, particularly in areas with subpar sanitation conditions. Additionally, consider vaccinations if you plan to travel to regions with a heightened risk of typhoid showing. Equally important is being mindful of your dietary choices and ensuring that your food is cooked thoroughly. These proactive measures overall contribute to warding off typhoid and maintaining your overall well-being.

  1. Sanitation: Maintaining good personal hygiene and using clean water for drinking and cooking can help prevent typhoid. Avoid consuming street food in areas with poor sanitation.
  2. Vaccination: The typhoid vaccine is available and recommended for travelers visiting regions with a high risk of typhoid. It provides some protection against the disease.
  3. Hand Washing: Regular hand washing, especially before meals and after using the restroom, can help prevent the spread of typhoid and other infections.
  4. Food Safety: Consume thoroughly cooked food and avoid raw or undercooked dishes. Also, avoid consuming food or beverages from street vendors in areas with inadequate hygiene.


Typhoid remains a significant health concern, particularly in regions with poor sanitation and limited access to clean water. Understanding the causes, symptoms, treatment, and prevention methods is essential in controlling the spread of this potentially serious disease. Practicing good hygiene, seeking timely medical care, and, when necessary, receiving vaccinations are key steps in preventing and managing typhoid.



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